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Table 1 Characteristics of the MUNS Cohort Stratified by ED Visits within Six Months after Baseline Interview

From: Unmet need and psychological distress predict emergency department visits in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics No ED visit
(n = 444)
Any ED visit
(n = 86)
p-value
PREDISPOSING FACTORS    
Age, mean (SD) [range] 79.9 (4.0) [75-96] 79.5 (4.0) [75-89] 0.39
Civil status, n (%)    
   Married 89 (20.1) 13 (15.1)  
   Widowed 264 (59.5) 53 (61.3)  
   Other 91 (20.5) 20 (23.3) 0.54
Education, n (%)    
   Did not complete high school 190 (42.8) 44 (51.2)  
   High school graduate 105 (23.7) 16 (18.6)  
   Any post-secondary education 149 (33.6) 26 (30.2) 0.34
Transformed psychological distress,    
mean (SD) [range] -1.9 (1.3) [(-4.6)-0.8] -1.4 (1.2) [(-4.6)-2.7] < 0.001
Mastery, mean (SD) [range] 20.8 (3.6) [9-28] 20.1 (3.8) [10-28] 0.13
ENABLING FACTORS    
Dissatisfied with social support, n (%) 67 (15.1) 14 (16.3) 0.78
Residence, n (%)    
   Private dwelling 334 (75.2) 66 (76.7)  
   Seniors' residence 75 (16.9) 6 (7.0)  
   Rented room or subsidized housing 35 (7.9) 14 (16.3) 0.006
Low income, n (%) 156 (35.7) 46 (54.8) 0.001
   Missing 7 2  
NEED FACTORS
Disabled in any IADL and/or PADL
312 (70.2) 76 (88.4) < 0.001
   IADL unmet need, n (%)    
No IADL unmet needs 347 (78.1) 46 (53.5)  
1 IADL unmet need 72 (16.2) 28 (32.6)  
2+ IADL unmet needs 25 (5.6) 12 (14.0) < 0.001
   IADL met need, n (%)    
No IADL met needs 220 (49.5) 44 (51.1)  
1 IADL met need 154 (34.7) 32 (37.2)  
2+ IADL met needs 70 (15.8) 10 (11.6) 0.61
   Any PADL unmet need, n (%) 35 (7.9) 12 (14.0) 0.07
   Any PADL met need, n (%) 14 (3.2) 8 (9.3) 0.009
Risk for malnutrition, n (%)    
   Low risk 177 (39.9) 19 (22.1)  
   Moderate 214 (48.2) 44 (51.2)  
   High risk 53 (11.9) 23 (26.7) < 0.001
Poor self-rated health, n (%) 99 (22.3) 38 (44.2) < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m 2 ), n (%)    
   < 25.0 256 (57.6) 22 (48.8)  
   25.0 < 30.0 141 (31.8) 27 (31.4)  
   30.0+ 47 (10.6) 17 (19.8) 0.05
Chronic Disease Score, mean (SD) [range] 5.8 (5.0) 0 [1-23] 7.0 (4.9) 0 [1-23] 0.05
Any ED visit within 6 months prior to baseline interview, n (%) 51 (11.5) 20 (23.3) 0.003
Any hospitalization within 6 months prior to baseline interview, n (%) 38 (8.6) 7 (8.1) 0.90
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