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Table 2 The relationship between parental status and psychological well-being: Distribution and significance testing.

From: The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old

  Total Parents Childless p**
  n %* n %* n %*  
Dependent variables        
Rate of feelings of loneliness        
   n 487   430   57   
   Often 40 8.2 33 7.7 7 12.3  
   Sometimes 154 31.6 136 31.6 18 31.6  
   Rarely 150 30.8 132 30.7 18 31.6  
   Never 141 29.0 127 29.5 14 24.6  
   Would like more time alone 2 .4 2 .5 0 0  
        .734
Strength of feelings of loneliness        
   n 266   230   36   
   Very strong 9 3.4 7 3.0 2 5.6  
   Quite strong 43 16.2 38 16.5 5 13.9  
   Neither strong nor weak 117 44.0 100 43.5 17 47.2  
   Quite weak 57 21.4 51 22.2 6 16.7  
   Very weak 40 15.0 34 14.8 6 16.7  
        .857
Depression. GDS-15        
   n 494   437   57   
   Score ≤ 4p 331 67.0 294 67.3 37 64.9  
   Score ≥ 5p 163 33.0 143 32.7 20 35.1  
        .721
Life satisfaction        
   n 348   310   38   
   Very good 143 41.1 132 42.6 11 28.9  
   Quite good 162 46.6 142 45.8 20 52.6  
   Neither good nor bad 26 7.5 21 6.8 5 13.2  
   Quite bad 13 3.7 12 3.9 1 2.6  
   Very bad 4 1.1 3 1.0 1 2.6  
        .323
Sense of meaning in life        
   n 346   308   38   
   To the highest degree 113 32.7 105 34.1 8 21.1  
   Quite meaningful 178 51.4 158 51.3 20 52.6  
   Neither meaningful nor meaningless 26 7.5 21 6.8 5 13.2  
   Quite meaningless 26 7.5 22 7.1 4 10.5  
   Without meaning 3 .9 2 .6 1 2.6  
        .229
Happiness        
   n 346   308   38   
   To the highest degree happy 101 29.2 95 30.8 6 15.8  
   Quite happy 169 48.8 150 48.7 19 50.0  
   Neither happy nor unhappy 49 14.2 43 14.0 6 15.8  
   Quite unhappy 25 7.2 19 6.2 6 15.8  
   Very unhappy 2 .6 1 0.3 1 2.6  
        .038++
  1. * Some percentages do not add up to 100% because of rounding.
  2. ** Calculated with Pearson Chi Square. Significance level at ≤.05.
  3. + Statistically significant.
  4. ++Due to sample size ≤5 and p ≤ .05 Fisher's exact test was performed with p ≤ .05.