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Table 1 Sample characteristics by parental status group.

From: The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old

  Total Parents Childless p**
  n %* n %* n %*  
Independent variables        
Gender        
   n 495   438   57   
   Man 187 38.1 164 37.4 23 40.4  
   Woman 308 62.2 274 62.6 34 59.6  
        .670
Marital status        
   n 494   437   57   
   Married 214 43.3 200 45.8 14 24.6  
   Unmarried 52 10.5 31 7.1 21 36.8  
   Widowed 228 46.2 206 47.1 22 38.6  
        .000 +
Education        
   n 490   433   57   
   Elementary school 344 70.2 309 71.4 35 61.4  
   Secondary grammar school 104 21.2 88 20.3 16 28.1  
   College/University 42 8.6 36 8.3 6 10.5  
        .298
  1. * Some percentages do not add up to 100% because of rounding.
  2. ** Calculated with a Pearson Chi-square test. Significance level at ≤ .05.
  3. + Statistically significant.