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Table 1 Study Assessment Tools

From: Study Protocol: The Behaviour and Pain in Dementia Study (BePAID)

Confusion Assessment Measure (CAM) [24] Has a sensitivity of over 94% and specificity over 90% for detecting delirium. Distinguishes accurately between delirium and dementia.
Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) [23] Global cognitive assessment tool recommended for screening patients admitted to hospital. Maximum score of 10 cut off ≤7.
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) [33] Most widely used screening test for cognitive impairment. Maximum score of 30 cut off ≤24.
Functional Assessment Staging Scale (FAST) [25] Describes a continuum of 7 successive stages of functional impairment, from normality to the most severe dementia.
Charlson Co-Morbidity Index (CCI)[34] Calculates severity of chronic co-morbidity. Includes 19 diseases weighted on the basis of their association with mortality, allowing for the documentation of painful co-morbidities 43
Behave-AD [26] Covers 7 domains of BPSD including delusions, hallucinations, affective disturbance and aggressiveness. Includes a global rating of the trouble these behaviours cause to caregivers.
Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) [27] This rates a range of behaviours many of which are relevant and challenging on hospital wards, for example wandering, grabbing on to people and pushing. It enables measurements over short timescales.
Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) [28] Validated observational pain tool that measures pain during care tasks and at rest.
Faces Pain Scale [29] Self report pain scale consisting of line drawings of 6 faces indicating increasing amounts of pain. Can be used by people with advanced dementia.
Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) [31] Validated indicators of the quality of hospital care received by vulnerable older people. Designed to be gathered from hospital notes post patient discharge.