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Table 3 Effect size and study power analysis of memory performance measures, global cognitive function and mood, in trials of cognitive exercises in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

From: Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

Citation Design Outcome measure Effect size and 95% confidence Interval ES > .5 or < -.5 Power of study > 1 whole number change in test score Could Type II errors explain lack of significance?
Gunther et al 2003 UCT Repeat sentence T1 .46 (-.18, 1.11) No Single Yes Yes
   Repeat sentences T2 .17 (-.50, .83) No group Yes  
   CVLT list immediate T1 .80 (.14, 1.47) Yes   Yes  
   CVLT list immediate T2 .35 (-3.2, 1.02) No   Yes  
   CVLT Word lists delay T1 1.21 (-.52, 1.91) Yes   Yes  
   CVLT Wordlist delay T2 .45 (-.22, 1.12) No   Yes  
Olazaran et al 2004 RCT ADAS-Cog .84 (-.53, 2.21) Yes .30 No Yes
   MMSE -.10 (-1.43, 1.23) No .06 No  
   GDS^ -.33 (-1.23, 1.17) No .05 No  
Cipriani et al 2006 UCT MMSE .50 (-.39, 1.39) Yes Single No Yes
   RBMT .64 (-.26, 1.54) Yes group Yes  
   GDS^ -.33 (-1.21,.55) No   Yes  
Rozzini et al 2007 RCT Story recall vs C1 .99 (.29, 1.68) Yes .52 Yes Yes
   Story recall vs C2 .82 (.14, 1.50) Yes .77 Yes  
   MMSE vs C1 -.37 (-1.04, .29) No .19 No  
   MMSE vs C2 -.58 (-1.25, .09) Yes .52 No  
   NPI^ vs C1 -.82 (-1.5, -.14) Yes .77 Yes  
   NPI^ vs C2 -.64 (-1.31, -.14) Yes .92 Yes  
   GDS^ vs C1 -.26 (-.92, 1.29) No .45 No  
   GDS^ vs C2 -.52 (-1.18, 15) Yes .54 No  
Talassi et al 2007 NRCT MMSE .07(-.76, .89) No .14 No No
   Episodic immediate .10(-.73, .92) No .12 No  
   Episodic delay .14 (-.96, .68) No .09 No  
   GDS^ -.35(-1.18, .47) No .20 Yes  
Barnes et al 2009 RCT RBANS total 0.33 (-.26, -0.92) No .29   Yes
   RBANS immediate memory .38 (-.21,-0.96) No .35   
   RBANS delay memory .53 (-.05, -1.10) Yes .55   
   GDS^ No data     
  1. ES: Effect size. Relative ES for RCTs and NRCT, and ES for single intervention group in UCT were calculated by authors of this review as described in the methods analysis
  2. Power analysis calculated by the authors of this review as described in the methods analysis. *Significance of effect size contrast from authors' ES analysis
  3. NRCT: Non-randomised controlled trial
  4. UCT: Uncontrolled trial
  5. T1: Immediate
  6. T2: At follow-up
  7. C1: Control Cholinesterase inhibitor
  8. C2: Control
  9. ADAS-Cog: Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive
  10. NPI: Neuropsychiatry Inventory
  11. MMSE: Mini Mental Status Examination