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Table 2 Cognitive training intervention characteristics and cognitive outcomes from randomized (RCT), non-randomized controlled (NRCT) and uncontrolled trials (UCT) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

From: Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

Citation Cognitive training Control condition No. Of sessions/wk Session length (hrs) Total no. of sessions/no. wks Follow-up (mo) Cognitive outcome measures Generalisation outcome measures
Rapp et al 2002 Memory strategies (cueing, categorisation, chunking, method of loci) through repetitive exercises and homework drills. Group format. RCT No treatment 1 2 6/6 6 Domain Specific: Memory Functioning Questionnaire, Memory Controllability Questionnaire, Word list immediate & delayed recall, Story Paragraph immediate & delayed recall, Grocery list immediate & delayed recall, Names and faces immediate & delayed recall Profile of Mood States
Gunther et al 2003 Cognitive exercise of multi-domain computer-based training with Cogpack (Marker Software, 1992). Format not reported. UCT None 1 .75 14/14 5 Domain Specific: Six tests from the German Nurnberger-Aging Inventory: TMT, Repeat sentences, Word Lists, Word Pairs, Picture test, Figure test, California Verbal Learning Test- German version (CVLT-G) None
Olazaran et al 2004 Cognitive exercise with multi-domain pen & paper cognitive exercise drills, within a larger cognitive-motor intervention. RCT Psycho-social support 2 3.5 100/52 None Global: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ)
Belleville et al 2006 Memory strategies of imagery, association, method of loci, and computer-assisted attention training NRCT Wait list 1 2 8/8 None Domain Specific: Episodic memory tasks of face naming, word list, story text. Subjective Memory Questionnaire (QAM), Scale of Well Being
Cipriani et al 2006 Cognitive exercise of multimodal & multi- domain computer-based exercises with NeuroPsychological Training (NPT) (Tonetta, 1995, 1998). Format not reported. UCT None 4 .75 32/8 None Global: MMSE
Domain Specific: Phonemic and Semantic fluency, Trail Making Test (TMT), Digit Symbol, NPT scores
Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Advanced Activity of Daily Living, State and Trait Anxiety (STAI-XI, X2), Short Form Health Survey (SF-12)
Rozzini et al 2007 Cognitive exercise computer-based NPT and Cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). Individual format. RCT
Control1 (C1)
ChEI Control 2 (C2) No treatment
5 1 72/12 3 Global: MMSE
Domain Specific: Story Paragraph, Letter verbal fluency, Semantic verbal fluency, Raven's Coloured Matrices, Rey Complex Figure test (RCFT) copy and recall
GDS-15 items,
Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI),
Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL)
Talassi et al 2007 Cognitive exercise multimodal & multi- domain computer NPT (Tonetta, 1995, 1998). Group format. NRCT Physiotherapy 4 .5 to .75 12/3 None Global: MMSE
Domain specific: Digit Span, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) copy and recall, digit Symbol, clock drawing, Phonemic and Semantic verbal fluency
RBMT, Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (BADL), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), GDS, STAI, Carer Burden Inventory, physical Performance Test (PPT)
Wenisch et al 2007 Memory strategies categorisation, reality orientation, mental imagery along with executive exercises. Group format. UCT None 1 1.5 12/12 None Global: MMSE
Domain specific: Logical Memory, Word pair Associate learning, TMT, Semantic and Phonemic verbal fluency.
Goldberg Anxiety & Depression Scale (GADS)
Troyer et al 2008 Memory strategies spaced retrieval, memory book, semantic association, logical location with repeated exercises and homework activities within a larger mixed intervention. Group format. RCT Wait list not reported 2 10/25 3 Domain specific:
Word List of two-syllable nouns, Digit span, Memory strategy knowledge, Multi-factorial Memory Questionnaire
Barnes et al 2009 Cognitive exercise computer-based training of 7 exercises to improve information processing and accuracy of auditory cortex developed by POSIT Science Corporation (San Francisco, CA). Individual home-based format. 3 types of computer activities 5 1.6 not reported None Global: Repeatable battery for Assessment of Cognitive Status(RBANS)
Domain Specific: California Verbal Learning test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Boston Naming Test, TMT, Design Fluency Test, Spatial Span