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Table 1 Sample characteristics of the published randomized controlled trials (RCT) non-randomized controlled trials (NRCT) and uncontrolled trials (UCT) of cognitive training interventions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

From: Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

Citation Study Design Type of Training MCI Sample size (n) Age (yrs) Gender (% male) MMSE (0-30) Criteria for diagnosis of MCI Exclusion of co-morbidities
Rapp et al 2002 RCT Memory strategies Total n = 19     Petersen (1999) not reported
    Treatment n = 9 73.3 (6.6) 11% 28 (1.5)   
    Control n = 10 75.1 (7.03) 70% 27.3 (1.8)   
Gunther et al 2003 UCT Cognitive exercise n = 19 75-91 21 not reported Age Associated Memory Impairment, no Dementia, subjective & objective memory complaint, not reported
Olazaran et al 2004 RCT Cognitive exercise Total n = 12   35%*   Flicker (1991) Physical condition precluding full participation. Illiteracy.
    Treatment n = 8 75.3 (1.05)*   17.2 (3.6) Neuro-imaging studies  
    Control n = 4 73.3 (1.05)*   21.7 (5.9)   
Belleville et al 2006 NRCT Memory strategies Total n = 28     Petersen (2001) Alzheimer's Disease, alcoholism or "toxicomania", presence of history of psychiatric or neurological disorder, general anaesthesia in the last 6 months
    Treatment n = 20 62.3 (7.3) not reported 28.9 (1.2)   
    Control = 8 not reported not reported not reported   
Cipriani et al 2006 UCT Cognitive exercise n = 10 70.6 (6.0) not reported 28.0 (1.4) not reported not reported
Rozzini et al 2007 RCT Cognitive exercise Total n = 59 63-7 ** not reported   Petersen (2001) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) > 5
    Treatment CT & ChEI n = 15    26.0 (1.6) Neuro-imaging studies Probable or possible Alzheimer Disease, Drug or alcohol abuse or dependence according to DSM-IV criteria, poorly controlled diabetes or other medical condition incompatible with treatment, Previous treatment with ChEIs, Intake of antidepressants during the period of study.
    Control I ChEI n = 22    26.4 (1.9)   
    Control II n = 22    26.8 (1.8)   
Talassi et al 2007 NRCT Cognitive exercise Total n = 37     Petersen (1997) not reported
    Treatment n = 30 76.2 (7.3) not reported 27.5 (1.4)   
    Control n = 7 76.1 (7.0) not reported 26.9(1.9)   
Wenisch et al 2007 NRCT Memory strategies Total = 24 73.0 (5.5) 33.3 28.1 (.9) Petersen (2001) Illiteracy, physical condition preventing full participation, prior cognitive stimulation therapy
    Treatment n = 12      
    Control n = 12 Healthy      
Troyer et al 2008 RCT Memory strategies Total n = 50     Petersen (2004) not reported
    Treatment n = 24 76.0 (5.6) 45% 27.2(1.9)   
    Control n = 26 74.8 (7.7) 45% 28.5(1.0)   
Barnes et al 2009 RCT Cognitive exercise Total n = 47     Winbald (2004) Cerebrovascular disease, starting treatment with ChEIs
    Treatment n = 22 74.1 (8.7) 59.1% not reported   
    Control n = 25 74.8 (7.2) 60% not reported   
  1. Values reported as mean (±SD).
  2. *Data given for entire sample of MCI and AD.
  3. ** Age range given for entire sample
  4. MMSE: Mini Mental Status Examination
  5. ChEI: Cholinesterase Inhibitor
  6. DSM IV: Diagnostic Manual 4th Edition