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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of adults aged 65 and over in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in 1998, 2004 and 2008

From: Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

Demographic characteristics Overall 1998
(n = 10390)
2004
(n = 10621)
2008
(n = 10557)
p-value
Mean age, y (95% CI) 74.6
(74.5, 74.7)
74.4
(74.3, 74.5)
74.9
(74.7, 75.0)
74.5
(74.3, 74.6)
< 0.001
Female sex, % (95%CI) 57.3
(56.7, 57.9)
58.1
(57.0, 59.1)
57.1
(56.0, 58.1)
56.9
(55.9, 58.0)
0.26
Race      0.40
   White, % (95% CI) 89.5
(89.2, 89.8)
89.4
(88.8, 89.9)
89.8
(89.3,90.4)
89.4
(88.8,90.0)
 
   Black, % (95% CI) 8.3
(8.0, 8.6)
8.5
(8.0, 9.0)
8.1
(7.6, 8.6)
8.3
(7.9, 8.8)
 
   Other, % (95% CI) 2.2
(2.0, 2.4)
2.1
(1.8, 2.4)
2.1
(1.8, 2.4)
2.3
(2.0, 2.6)
 
Married, % (95% CI) 55.1
(54.4, 55.7)
55.3
(54.3, 56.4)
55.9
(54.9, 56.9)
54.1
(53.0, 55.2)
0.05
Education, % (95% CI)      < 0.001
   Under 8th grade 7.5
(7.2, 7.8)
9.6
(9.1, 10.2)
7.1
(6.6, 7.6)
6.0
(5.6, 7.5)
 
   8-11 grade 20.6
(20.1, 21.1)
24.2
(23.4, 25.1)
20.2
(19.4, 21.1)
18.0
(20.1, 21.1)
 
   High school 34.9
(34.4, 35.5)
33.1
(32.1, 34.1)
35.8
(34.8, 36.8)
35.7
(34.4, 35.5)
 
   Above high school 37.0
(36.4, 37.6)
33.1
(32.1, 34.1)
36.9
(35.9, 37.9)
40.3
(36.4, 37.6)
 
Current Smoker, % (95% CI) 10.1
(9.7, 10.4)
10.9
(10.3, 11.6)
9.3
(8.8, 10.0)
10.1
(9.4, 10.8)
0.002
Body Mass Index, (95% CI) 26.7
(26.6, 26.8)
26.0
(25.9, 26.1)
26.6
(26.4, 26.7)
27.5
(27.3, 27.6)
< 0.001
Chronic diseases, %      
(95%CI)      
   Hypertension 59.7
(59.2, 60.3)
52.5
(51.5, 53.5)
60.5
(59.5, 61.5)
65.0
(63.9, 66.0)
< 0.001
   Heart conditions 31.4
(30.8, 32.0)
30.7
(29.7, 31.6)
31.9
(30.9, 32.9)
31.6
(30.6, 32.5)
0.20
   Stroke 9.3
(9.0, 9.7)
9.8
(9.2, 10.4)
8.9
(8.4, 9.6)
9.2
(8.6, 9.8)
0.14
   Diabetes 19.3
(18.8, 19.8)
15.2
(14.5, 15.9)
19.3
(18.4, 20.1)
22.7
(21.8, 23.6)
< 0.001
   Cancer 17.4
(16.9, 17.9)
14.6
(13.9, 15.3)
18.1
(17.3, 18.9)
19.1
(18.2, 19.9)
< 0.001
   Chronic lung disease 11.6
(11.2, 12.0)
10.8
(10.1, 11.4)
11.6
(10.9, 12.3)
12.3
(11.6, 13.0)
0.01
   Arthritis 65.5
(64.9, 66.1)
59.1
(58.1, 60.1)
67.7
(66.7, 68.6)
68.8
(67.8, 69.8)
< 0.001
Impairments, %      
(95% CI)      
Severe Cognitive
Impairment
4.3
(4.1, 4.6)
4.9
(4.5, 5.3)
4.2
(3.8, 4.5)
4.0
(3.6, 4.4)
0.01
   Visual Impairment 23.7
(23.2, 24.2)
25.4
(24.5, 26.3)
23.6
(22.7, 24.5)
22.4
(21.6, 23.3)
< 0.001
   Hearing Impairment 25.8
(25.3, 26.4)
25.4
(24.5, 26.3)
27.2
(26.2, 28.1)
25.0
(24.1, 25.9)
0.003
   Urinary incontinence 23.8
(23.3, 24.4)
19.8
(19.0, 20.6)
23.6
(22.7, 24.4)
27.5
(26.5, 28.4)
< 0.001
   Mobility Impairment 8.2
(7.9, 8.6)
8.3
(7.8, 8.9)
7.9
(7.3, 8.4)
8.5
(7.9, 9.1)
0.27
Disability, % (95%      
CI)      
ADL dependence
Bath
8.6
(8.3, 9.0)
9.8
(9.2, 10.4)
8.2
(7.6, 8.8)
8.1
(7.5, 8.6)
0.001
   Bed transfer 6.0
(5.7, 6.3)
6.9
(6.4, 7.4)
5.3
(4.9, 5.8)
5.9
(5.4, 6.4)
0.001
Dress
Eating
10.9
(10.5, 11.3)
3.8
(3.6, 4.1)
11.5
(10.8, 12.1)
4.1
(3.7, 4.5)
10.2
(9.5, 10.8)
3.7
(3.3, 4.1)
11.0
(10.4,11.7)
3.8
(3.4, 4.2)
0.01
0.28
   Toileting 6.3
(6.1, 6.6)
6.9
(6.4, 7.5)
5.8
(5.3, 6.3)
6.4
(5.8, 6.9)
0.01
IADL dependence      
   Meal preparation 7.6
(7.2, 7.9)
7.8
(7.2, 8.3)
7.5
(7.0, 8.1)
7.4
(6.9, 8.0)
0.66
   Medication management 4.0
(3.8, 4.2)
3.9
(3.5, 4.2)
3.9
(3.5, 4.3)
4.2
(3.8, 4.6)
0.53
   Money management 7.1
(6.8, 7.5)
7.4
(6.9, 7.9)
7.0
(6.5, 7.5)
7.1
(6.5, 7.6)
0.56
   Shopping 11.1
(10.7, 11.4)
11.7
(11.0, 12.3)
11.2
(10.6, 11.9)
10.4
(9.8, 11.0)
0.02
   Telephone use 5.6
(5.3, 5.9)
5.9
(5.5, 6.4)
5.6
(5.1, 6.1)
5.6
(4.8, 5.7)
0.15
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living.
  2. Note: All estimates used sampling weights to account for survey design (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses); p- values were derived from the Wald chi-square tests for categorical variables and ANOVA F-test for continuous variables for association between the proportion or characteristics of respondents and year of survey.