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Table 3 Odds ratios for falls and fall-related fractures by SRRST category and confounders

From: Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

  Single fall Recurrent falls Fractures
  Model 1
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 2
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 1
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 2
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 1
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 2
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Subjective risk rating of specific tasks
No risk, 0 points 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Low risk, 1-2 points 2.65 (2.14-3.28) 2.40 (1.94-2.98) 4.17 (2.88-6.06) 3.88 (2.67-5.64) 1.80 (1.03-3.15)* 1.77 (1.01-3.12)*
Moderate risk, 3-4 points 5.06 (4.11-6.23) 4.21 (3.39-5.23) 9.11 (6.36-13.05) 7.94 (5.5-11.47) 3.24 (1.91-5.48) 3.22 (1.86-5.57)
High risk, ≥ 5 points 7.56 (6.07-9.42) 6.15 (4.85-7.8) 17.71 (12.32-25.45) 15.04 (10.29-22) 4.65 (2.73-7.94) 5.05 (2.83-9.03)
P for trend < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Potential confounding factors
Age, years 1.01 (1.00-1.01) 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.02 (1.00-1.05)* 1.03 (1.01-1.05)*
Sex, female 0.97 (0.84-1.11) 0.94 (0.81-1.09) 0.91 (0.77-1.08) 0.89 (0.74-1.06) 1.72 (1.19-2.50) 1.76 (1.20-2.58)
History of stroke with symptoms of hemiparesis   1.04 (0.88-1.22)   0.88 (0.72-1.08)   1.32 (0.91-1.93)
Knee osteoarthritis with pain   1.28 (1.12-1.47)   1.31 (1.11-1.54)   1.00 (0.73-1.37)
Parkinson disease   1.44 (1.14-1.81)   1.51 (1.16-1.96)   1.10 (0.64-1.88)
Dementia   0.93 (0.81-1.08)   0.95 (0.80-1.14)   0.87 (0.62-1.22)
Poor vision   1.05 (0.87-1.27)   1.00 (0.80-1.25)   0.87 (0.56-1.34)
Urinary incontinence or frequency   1.09 (0.95-1.26)   1.06 (0.89-1.26)   0.96 (0.69-1.34)
Use of psychotropics   1.22 (1.06-1.40)   1.07 (0.90-1.28)   0.95 (0.68-1.32)
Use of walking aid   1.20 (1.05-1.38)   1.14 (0.96-1.35)   1.07 (0.78-1.47)
Absence of habitual exercise   1.04 (0.90-1.19)   1.15 (0.96-1.37)   0.81 (0.59-1.12)
Daily use of slippers or sandals   1.23 (1.06-1.43)   0.81 (0.67-0.98)*   1.67 (1.21-2.30)
C-index, value (95% CI) 0.68 (0.66-0.70) 0.70 (0.68-0.71) 0.72 (0.71-0.74) 0.74 (0.72-0.75) 0.67 (0.63-0.71) 0.69 (0.65-0.73)
Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p value 0.51 0.48 0.72 0.57 0.72 0.12
  1. *p < .05, p < .01
  2. Odds ratios in the SRRST category were calculated in the low, moderate, and high risk relative to the no risk.