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Table 1 Number of participants with falls and fall-related fractures and odds ratios of potential risk factors

From: Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

  Single fall Recurrent falls Fractures
  Number (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) Number (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) Number (%) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Subjective risk rating of specific tasks
Risk of falls during walking, yes 1068 (41.5) 2.21 (2.01-2.43) 633 (24.6) 3.15 (2.71-3.66) 123 (4.8) 1.83 (1.36-2.46)
Risk of falls during transferring, yes 823 (41.7) 1.80 (1.66-1.96) 504 (25.5) 2.43 (2.14-2.76) 103 (5.2) 1.89 (1.43-2.51)
Risk of falls during toileting, yes 568 (42.9) 1.66 (1.53-1.80) 361 (27.3) 2.18 (1.93-2.47) 65 (4.9) 1.49 (1.11-2.00)
Risk of falls during stair ascending/descending, yes 1140 (39.2) 2.13 (1.93-2.36) 685 (23.6) 3.55 (2.99-4.22) 139 (4.8) 2.10 (1.53-2.90)
Risk of falls during wandering, yes 453 (44.9) 1.68 (1.55-1.83) 2.89 (28.7) 2.16 (1.90-2.44) 66 (6.5) 2.18 (1.63-2.91)
Risk of falls because of risky behaviors, yes 672 (41.6) 1.66 (1.53-1.80) 424 (26.3) 2.24 (1.98-2.54) 79 (4.9) 1.55 (1.17-2.06)
Risk of falls because of agitation, yes 479 (45.0) 1.70 (1.57-1.85) 316 (29.7) 2.32 (2.05-2.62) 55 (5.2) 1.55 (1.14-2.11)
Potential confounding factors
Age, years
Falls or fractures
82.9 ± 7.5 83.0 ± 7.5 84.3 ± 6.9
   No falls or fractures 82.5 ± 7.4 82.6 ± 7.4 82.6 ± 7.4
Sex, female 1062 (30.1) 0.97
(0.89-1.06)
560 (15.8) 0.90
(0.79-1.03)
151 (4.3) 1.77
(1.24-2.52)
Stroke, yes 345 (32.0) 1.07 (0.97-1.18) 175 (16.2) 0.99 (0.85-1.16) 41 (3.8) 1.03 (0.74-1.45)
Knee osteoarthritis and pain, yes 659 (36.7) 1.36 (1.26-1.48) 362 (20.1) 1.41 (1.25-1.60) 77 (4.3) 1.26 (0.95-1.67)
Dementia, yes 670 (34.3) 1.23 (1.13-1.34) 387 (19.8) 1.40 (1.23-1.58) 80 (4.1) 1.18 (0.89-1.57)
Poor vision, yes 239 (37.9) 1.30 (1.16-1.45) 131 (20.8)* 1.32 (1.12-1.56) 26 (4.1) 1.13 (0.74-1.73)
Parkinson disease, yes 163 (44.7) 1.53 (1.35-1.73) 104 (28.5) 1.85 (1.55-2.20) 16 (4.4) 1.20 (0.73-1.98)
Use of psychotropics, yes 525 (37.0) 1.33 (1.22-1.45) 283 (19.9) 1.33 (1.17-1.52) 57 (4.0) 1.12 (0.82-1.51)
Urinary incontinence or frequency, yes 702 (36.2) 1.35 (1.25-1.47) 403 (20.8) 1.53 (1.35-1.73) 82 (4.2) 1.24 (0.94-1.65)
Absence of habitual exercise, yes 975 (33.7) 1.31 (1.20-1.43) 561 (19.4) 1.58 (1.38-1.81) 110 (3.8) 1.06 (0.80-1.41)
Use of slippers or sandals, yes 415 (36.3) 1.27 (1.16-1.39) 185 (16.2) 0.99 (0.85-1.14) 63 (5.5) 1.73 (1.28-2.32)
Use of walking aid, yes 887 (36.7) 1.49 (1.37-1.63) 492 (20.3) 1.60 (1.41-1.82) 109 (4.5) 1.51 (1.14-2.01)
  1. *p < .05, p < .01, Mean ± standard deviation