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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review

1st Author (year) Follow Up Sample size & Participant characteristics Physical frailty indicators measured in study* Quality
(0-27)
    W E G M P B O  
Gill et al. (1995) [35] 1 year 563 participants (74% women) with a mean age of 79.1 (SD 4.7)    X    X X 22
Guralnik et al. (1995) [20] 4 years 1122 men and women aged 71 years and older        X 25
Sonn et al. (1995) [37] 6 years 371 men and women aged 70    X X     21
Tinetti et al. (1995) [44] 1 year 927 participants (73% women) with a mean age of 79.9 (SD 5.2)    X    X   22
Gill et al. (1996) [36] 3 years 775 participants (74% women) with a mean age of 79.1 (SD 5.0)        X 24
Ostir et al. (1998) [18] 2 years 1365 participants (53% women) with a mean age of 73.3    X    X X 22
Giampaoli et al. (1999) [33] 4 years 140 men aged 71 to 91     X     20
Wu et al. (1999) [40] 3 years 1321 participants (49% women) 44.4% aged 65-69 and 10.9% aged 80 or older      X    22
Guralnik et al. (2000) [19] 6 years 6534 participants aged 65 years and older    X     X 22
Ishizaki et al. (2000) [30] 3 years 583 participants (56% women) with a mean age of 70.9 (SD 4.9)     X     23
Lee (2000) [38] 7 years 7527 men and women aged 70 years and older      X    20
Sarkisian et al. (2000) [39] 4 years 6632 women with a mean age of 73.0 (4.9)    X X X    21
Shinkai et al. (2000) [29] 6 years 736 men and women aged 65 and older    X X   X   24
Stessman et al. (2002) [27] 7 years 287 participants (51% women) aged 70 years at baseline.      X    20
Wang et al. (2002) [45] 3.4 years 2578 participants (59% women) aged 65 years and older      X    21
Shinkai et al. (2003) [28] 6 years 601 participants (56.1% women) with a mean age of 70.9 (SD 4.9)    X X   X   22
Al Snih et al. (2004) [22] 7 years 2493 participants (58% women) with a mean age of 72     X     24
Gill et al. (2004) [25] 3 years 754 participants (65% women) aged 70 years or older    X      24
Al Snih et al. (2005) [21] 7 years 1737 Mexican- American participants (58% women) aged 65 and older X        23
van den Brink et al. (2005) [34] 10 years 560 men aged 70 to 89 years      X    26
Onder et al. (2005) [42] 3 years 884 women (72% white) with a mean age of 78.7 (SD 8.0)    X X   X X 23
Jacobs et al. (2008) [26] 7 years 343 men and women aged 70 years.      X    22
Ritchie et al. (2008) [43] 4 years 983 men and women with a mean age of 75.30 (SD 6.72) X        22
Rosano et al. (2008) [31] 8.4 years 3156 participants (57% women, 71% white) with a mean age of 74.0 (SD 4.6)    X      23
Rothman et al. (2008) [23] 8 years 754 men and women with a mean age of 78.4 (SD 5.3) X X X X X    22
Gill et al. (2009) [24] 9 years 722 participants (65.2% women) with a mean age of 78.4 (SD 5.2)     X    X 25
Arnold et al. (2010) [32] 14 years 3278 participants (61% women, 83% white) with a mean age of 80 X        23
Balzi et al. (2010) [41] 3 years 897 Italian men and women, aged 65 to 102      X   X 21
Total number of studies per indicator 4 1 12 10 9 6 8  
  1. * W: Weight loss, E: Exhaustion, G: Gait speed, M: Muscle strength, P: Physical activity, B: Balance, and O: Other indicators.
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