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Table 2 Prevalence of symptoms across cognitive groups.

From: Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

  MMSE 18-21
(N = 316)
MMSE 22-25
(N = 659)
MMSE 26-30
(N = 806)
p-value All without
dementia or
severe cognitive impairment
(N = 1781)
Depression 58 (17.6) 67 (8.3) 73 (7.4) 0.001 198 (8.4)
Apathy 78 (25.2) 98 (13.5) 88 (9.6) 0.000 264 (11.8)
Anxiety 22 (7.2) 29 (4.0) 56 (6.7) 0.147 107 (6.0)
Persecution 44 (12.7) 76 (9.5) 61 (6.8) 0.012 181 (8.0)
Hallucinations 24 (6.7) 27 (3.0) 29 (3.4) 0.046 80 (3.5)
Agitation 23 (7.5) 28 (3.6) 28 (2.9) 0.013 79 (3.4)
Elation 18 (4.7) 20 (2.8) 29 (3.1) 0.252 67 (3.2)
Irritability 61 (17.4) 107 (14.6) 93 (10.8) 0.021 261 (12.3)
Sleep problems 131 (40.3) 302 (45.4) 360 (42.4) 0.366 793 (43.0)
Wandering 3 (0.6) 5 (0.4) 3 (0.2) 0.817 11 (0.3)
Confabulation 2 (0.6) 3 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 0.734 7 (0.2)
Misidentification 18 (6.5) 20 (2.9) 19 (2.8) 0.219 57 (3.1)
  No Cognitive Impairment
(N = 670)
All MCI
(N = 389)
OCIND
(N = 676)
p-value Dementia
(Savva et al 2009[4])
Depression 48 (6.0) 61 (14.5) 79 (8.5) 0.002 20.5
Apathy 67 (9.0) 79 (17.8) 110 (13.1) 0.004 50.3
Anxiety 35 (5.4) 33 (8.0) 36 (5.9) 0.427 8.9
Persecution 41 (5.5) 61 (13.5) 76 (9.3) 0.001 25.4
Hallucinations 17 (2.3) 25 (5.2) 34 (4.3) 0.148 15.1
Agitation 20 (2.6) 20 (5.2) 37 (3.9) 0.228 9.0
Elation 21 (2.8) 17 (5.0) 27 (2.6) 0.221 9.5
Irritability 73 (10.5) 82 (17.4) 100 (12.6) 0.041 28.8
Sleep problems 297 (43.0) 198 (49.0) 276 (38.6) 0.036 42.0
Wandering 2 (0.3) 4 (0.4) 3 (0.2) 0.665 12.8
Confabulation 2 (0.1) 2 (0.2) 3 (0.3) 0.483 5.8
Misidentification 22 (3.5) 12 (2.4) 21 (2.4) 0.524 20.3
  Amnestic MCI
(N = 75)
Non-amnestic MCI
(N = 185)
Multiple MCI
(N = 129)
p-value  
Depression 7 (9.3) 29 (14.8) 25 (18.7) 0.586  
Apathy 11 (10.8) 34 (17.9) 34 (23.8) 0.202  
Anxiety 7 (12.2) 12 (5.6) 14 (9.2) 0.374  
Persecution 10 (12.7) 25 (12.3) 26 (16.9) 0.723  
Hallucinations 5 (7.6) 10 (2.4) 10 (8.8) 0.042  
Agitation 1 (2.9) 10 (5.5) 9 (6.4) 0.807  
Elation 5 (12.7) 7 (3.0) 5 (2.2) 0.011  
Irritability 20 (24.7) 35 (15.8) 27 (14.0) 0.240  
Sleep problems 31 (44.1) 97 (48.5) 70 (54.3) 0.649  
Wandering 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 2 (0.8) 0.682  
Confabulation 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0.603  
Misidentification 3 (3.6) 6 (1.5) 3 (3.4) 0.496  
  1. Prevalence of symptoms N(%) across MMSE groups (top) MCI classification (middle) and MCI subtypes (bottom). All percentages are back-weighted to the population. P-values correspond to a likelihood ratio test of differences across groups.