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Table 3 Loneliness Is Associated with the Rate of Change in Motor Function

From: Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study

Terms Model A* Model B**
Time -0.039 (0.013 p =,0.004) -0.088 (0.024, p < 0.000)
Age -0.037 (0.002, p < 0.001) -0.034 (0.002, p < 0.001)
Age × Time -0.004 (0.001, p < 0.001) -0.004 (0.001, p < 0.001)
Sex 0.394 (0.038, p < 0.001) 0.425 (0.037, p < 0.001)
Sex × Time -0.077 (0.009, p < 0.001) -0.076 (0.009, p < 0.001)
Education 0.021 (0.005, p < 0.001) 0.015 (0.005, p = 0.004)
Education × Time 0.0004 (0.001, p = 0.722) -0.0001 (0.001, p = 0.955)
Loneliness -0.103 (0.026, p < 0.001) -0.076 (0.026, p = 0.003)
Loneliness × Time -0.016 (0.006, p = 0.005) -0.014 (0.006, p = 0.018)
Social Activity   0.224 (0.029, p < 0.001)
Social Activity × Time   0.016 (0.007, p = 0.022)
Social Network   -0.001 (0.003, p = 0.725)
Social Network × Time   0.0004 (0.0001, p = 0.519)
  1. * Model A is based on a linear mixed-effect model which shows the cross sectional association of a 1-point score on the Loneliness scale with the baseline global motor score (Loneliness) as well as its association with the rate of change in motor function (Loneliness × Time) and controls for age, sex and education and their interaction with Time. Units of comparison: Time in years since baseline, Age and education in years. ** Model B includes all the same terms as Model A but also includes terms to control for two measures of social isolation ( frequency of late-life social activities and social network size and their interactions with Time).
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