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Table 3 Odds ratios (and 95% CIs) for exposures, adjusted for covariates and stratified by surgical procedure.

From: Risk of venous thromboembolism after total hip and knee replacement in older adults with comorbidity and co-occurring comorbidities in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2003-2006)

  HIP PROCEDURES KNEE PROCEDURES
Exposure VTE yes VTE no OR CIs VTE yes VTE no OR CIs
No Comorbidity 410 57403 1.00 (ref) 1458 131682 1.00 (ref)
CVD vs. 3 567 0.71 (0.23-2.23) 21 1335 1.42 (0.92-2.20)
CAD vs. 68 9064 0.98 (0.76-1.28) 257 19760 1.19 (1.04-1.37)
CHF vs. 25 1072 3.08 (2.05-4.65) 73 2673 2.47 (1.95-3.14)
Diabetes vs. 47 7735 0.85 (0.63-1.15) 282 26458 0.96 (0.85-1.10)
COPD vs. 60 7929 1.06 (0.81-1.39) 273 16563 1.49 (1.31-1.70)
CAD and CHF vs. 12 719 2.11 (1.18-3.78) 33 1645 1.86 (1.30-2.60)
CAD & COPD vs. 16 1715 1.25 (0.75-2.06) 52 3314 1.44 (1.09-1.90)
Diabetes & CAD vs. 18 2302 1.05 (0.65-1.69) 47 7108 0.61 (0.45-0.81)
Diabetes & COPD vs. 9 1172 1.09 (0.56-2.11) 36 3652 0.89 (0.64-1.24)
All other combinations 34 2691 1.69 (1.19-2.40) 111 6767 1.49 (1.23-181)
Age 65-69 163 23242 1.00 (ref) 734 62629 1.00 (ref)
Age 70-74 vs. Age 65-69 167 24721 0.96 (0.77-1.19) 751 62857 1.01 (0.91-1.12)
Age 75-79 vs. Age 65-69 172 23144 1.05 (0.84-1.30) 649 53929 1.00 (0.90-1.12)
Age ≥80 vs. Age 65-69 200 21262 1.30 (1.05-1.60) 509 41542 0.99 (0-89-1.11)
Females 411 58081 1.00 (ref) 1746 143315 1.00 (ref)
Males 291 34287 1.21 (1.04-1.41) 897 77642 0.94 (0.87-1.02)
Total observations 702 92369    2643 220957   
  1. Associations adjusted in multivariate logistic regression for each comorbidity exposure as compared with the group with none of the listed comorbidities or co-occurring comorbidities. All association were adjusted for age group and sex. We also assessed race, insurance status, hospital surgical volume, obesity, bi-laterality (two primary procedures during the same surgery) and hypercoagulable state but deleted them from the final model for lack of confounding. Abbreviations: CAD = coronary artery disease, CHF = congestive heart failure, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD = cerebrovascular disease.