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Table 3 Comparison of baseline characteristics between Wave 1 subjects with and without mortality data available (males).

From: A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)

  Mortality data available
(N= 9,163)
Mortality data not available
(N= 4,648)
Significance of the difference (P)
Frailty variables    
Exhaustion: yes (%) 25.3 27.4 0.007 χ
Weight loss: yes (%) 5.9 7.8 < 0.001 χ
Handgrip strength, Kg: mean (SD) 43.6 (10.5) 42.4 (11.5) < 0.001 μ
Slowness: yes (%) 10.9 13.6 < 0.001 χ
Low activity: hardly ever, or never (%) 8.5 14.6 < 0.001 χ
Frailty classes    
Non-frail (%) 83.9 79.0 < 0.001 χ
Pre-frail (%) 13.5 17.0 < 0.001 χ
Frail (%) 2.7 4.0 < 0.001 χ
Sociodemographic    
Age: mean (SD) 64.2 (9.7) 64.0 (10.1) 0.071μ
Years of education: mean (SD) 10.4 (4.5) 10.5 (4.5) 0.018μ
Physical    
Self-rated health (best:1; worst:5): mean (SD) 2.9 (1.1) 3.0 (1.2) < 0.001 μ
No. chronic diseases: mean (SD) 1.4 (1.3) 1.5 (1.4) 0.046μ
No. symptoms: mean (SD) 1.2 (1.4) 1.3 (1.5) 0.080μ
No. contacts with doctor in last year: mean (SD) 5.7 (9.0) 7.4 (11.9) < 0.001 μ
Admitted to hospital in last year (%) 13.1 14.9 0.003 χ
Functional    
No. limitations with ADLs: mean (SD) 0.16 (0.66) 0.22 (0.90) 0.004 μ
No. limitations with IADLs: mean (SD) 0.23 (0.89) 0.34 (1.07) < 0.001 μ
Received home care: personal/nursing (%) 3.3 3.4 0.974χ
Received home care: domestic tasks (%) 2.7 3.4 0.058χ
Psychological and cognitive    
EURO-D score (min: 0; max: 12) (SD) 1.8 (1.9) 2.0 (2.2) < 0.001 μ
Verbal fluency test score: mean (SD) 19.3 (7.3) 18.6 (7.5) < 0.001 μ
Delayed word recall score: mean (SD) 3.2 (1.9) 3.0 (1.9) < 0.001 μ
  1. χ Chi-squared test; μ Mann-Whitney U test. Significant P values (< 0.01) are indicated in bold.