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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics

From: Impact of valvular heart disease on activities of daily living of nonagenarians: the leiden 85-plus study a population based study

  Echocardiograpic examination
  Yes [n = 81] No [n = 196] p value
Females [%] 67 75 0.20*
Living independently [%] 78 55 <0.001*
ADL (IQR) [points] 10 (9-14) 16 (10-25) <0.001‡
IADL (IQR) [points] 23 (17-29) 33 (25-36) <0.001‡
GARS (IQR) [points] 33 (26-42) 49 (35-61) <0.001‡
MMSE (IQR) [points] 28 (26-29) 22 (15-27) <0.001‡
GDS-15 (>4) [%] 14.8 32 <0.001‡
History of cardiovascular disease [%]† 35 43 0.15*
History of heart failure [%] 19 17 0.82*
Diastolic blood pressure (SD) [mmHg] 73 (9) 71 (10) 0.17*
Systolic blood pressure (SD) [mmHg] 155 (16) 150 (19) 0.03*
  1. SD, Standard Deviation. IQR, Inter Quartile Range. ADL, Activities in Daily Living. IADL, Instrumental Activities in Daily Living. GARS, Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination. GDS-15, Geriatric Depression Scale. †, Including cerebrovascular accident, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease or an electrocardiogram revealing myocardial ischemia or infarction. *, Independent T-test. ‡, Mann Whitney test. N, number of participants.