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Table 1 Demographic and clinical features of patients with CHF and elderly controls at baseline

From: Clinical treatment reverses attentional deficits in congestive heart failure

  CHF (n = 50) Controls (n = 30) Statistic p
Ejection fraction (mean) 37.0 74.2 t = 6.1 <0.001
CI 35.2 – 38.7 72.7 – 75.6   
Age (mean years) 67.3 76.7 t = 6.1 <0.001
CI 65.6 – 69.0 73.8 – 79.5   
Male gender (%) 76.0 66.7 Χ2 = 0.8 0.365
Cerebrovascular symptoms (%) 16.0 13.3 Χ2 = 0.1 0.476
Sleep difficulties (%) 16.0 36.7 Χ2 = 4.4 0.035
Depression (%) 0 3.3 FET 0.375
Anxiety (%) 26.0 30.0 Χ2 = 0.1 0.698
Memory complaints (%) 18.0 40.0 Χ2 = 4.7 0.030
Paranoid symptoms (%) 0 3.3 FET 0.375
Prior myocardial infarction (%) 38.0 10.0 Χ2 = 7.4 0.007
Hypertension (%) 64.0 50.0 Χ2 = 1.5 0.218
Prior stroke (%) 14.0 0 FET 0.041
Current or previous smoking (%) 52.0 23.3 Χ2 = 6.4 0.012
Regular use of alcohol (%) 28.0 0 FET 0.001
Prior psychiatric history (%) 0 0 - -
  1. CI = 95% confidence interval of the mean. t = Statistical value of the Student's t-test. Χ2 = Statistical value of Pearson's chi-square. FET = Fisher Exact Test.